instruments  are the infrastructure of a control and automation system and include: types of sensors, types of controllers, indicators, transmitters, recorders, etc. The main role of this instrument is to measure, transmit, display, record and control parameters. Are responsible for the physical during industrial processes.

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Classification of instrument types:

Instruments are divided into two categories:

The first category: temperature, pressure, humidity and surface control tools called controllers

The second category: tools for displaying values called inductors

Instrument components:

  • Control

With the advancement of science, industrial computers called plc entered the industry, which by using plcs, units were easily controlled and changes were easily made in units. Today, newer controllers called distribution control systems and fuzzy controllers are responsible for controlling industrial units.

  • measurement

Measurement parameters:

  • Pressure measurement
  • Temperature measurement
  • Measuring fluid flows
  • Measuring the height of liquids


  • Triggers

The actuators receive the output signal from the controller and act accordingly. The main output devices are control valves and electric motors. Together, these components control the process in a single set of operations

structure of instrumentation

Type of instrumentation equipment

  • Sensor: A device that can both measure quantities and convert them into electrical quantities.
  • Transmitter: Equipment that is responsible for measuring, converting and amplifying the signal.
  • Transducers: Transducers are converters that convert output signals into standard signals.
  • Display: Used to display values.
  • Controller: The values measured by the components must be controlled accurately, which is the role of the controller.
  • Final Element: The final element of each process is the final element.


  • In the oil industry and sub-industries
  • In industries, mines and cement


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